Shungite Studies

Shungite is a black mineral that is primarily composed of carbon. It is found mainly in Russia, in the Karelia region near the Shunga village, which is where it gets its name. Shungite is believed to be over 2 billion years old and is one of the oldest known minerals on Earth.

The unique aspect of shungite is that it contains fullerenes, a form of carbon molecule that has a spherical shape. Fullerenes were first discovered in 1985 and are now widely studied for their potential uses in medicine, electronics, and materials science. Shungite is one of the only natural sources of fullerenes.

We’ve gathered studies & research papers (some patents) from around the web, then shared them in a single location to help us all further our understanding of the mineral Shungite, and how it can be used with beneficial effects. Shungite contains C60 molecules (carbon 60), aka fullerenes or bucky balls. This special C60 molecule is made up of hexagons & pentagons, resembling a U.S. soccer ball in shape. This soccer ball shaped molecule is what gives Shungite it’s energy characteristics.


Carbonaceous Fullerene Containing Nano Mineral Shungite. Properties for Purification of Water Detoxification of Human Body.

Shungite is amorphous, uncrystallized, fullerene analogous carbon containing natural mineral. Shungite carbon is a fossilized organic material of sea bottom Precambrian sediments of high level of carbonization containing the fullerene-like regular structures. Shungite got its name after the village of Shunga in Karelia (Russian Federation), located on the shore of Onezhskoe Lake, where is located Zazhoginsky deposit. The total shungite reserves of Zazhoginsky deposit amount to approximately 35 million tons. Original Study Link: https://elibrary.ru/item.asp?id=36308638


Water-soluble pristine C60 Fullerene attenuates acetaminophen induced liver injury.

Abstract: Oxidative stress has been suggested as the main trigger and pathological mechanism of toxic liver injury. Effects of powerful free radical scavenger С60/fullerene on rat liver injury and liver cells (HepG2 line) were aimed to be discovered.


A study of the antioxidant, cytotoxic activity and absorption properties of Karelian Shungite by Physicochemical Methods.

Abstract: This study reveals that fossil shungite samples exhibit antioxidant activity, can reduce oxidized components, and bind to free radicals. A sample of Sh20 (size fraction—20μm) (1.30 mg equivalents of ascorbic acid/g of shungite; 3.46 mg equivalents of trolox/g of shungite; 0.99 mg equivalents of quercetin/g of shungite) had the maximal activity according to the amperometric method. The obtained data indicate that shungite has antioxidant properties, but these are approximately 1000 times less pronounced than those of quercetin. A ShT20 sample (size fraction—20μm+ heat treatment) was found to have the highest antioxidant activity against the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical and cytotoxicity. Further studies, including the optimization of the antioxidant extraction conditions of shungite, and the analysis of the qualitative and quantitative composition of the obtained extracts, are required for a more accurate interpretation of the results. Shungite can be applied as an alternative to activated carbon in water purification, due to its absorption, catalytic, antioxidant, regenerating, and antibacterial properties, as well as its high environmental safety and relatively low cost. It is possible to identify new structural forms of carbon within, and other valuable properties of, shungite substance, which will make it possible to create effective technologies for the practical use of shungite rocks, particularly in the production of fullerenes and other carbon nanoclusters.


C60 Fullerenes Increase the intensity of rotational movements in non-anesthetized Hemiparkinsonic Rats.

The effect of C60fullerene aqueous colloid solution (C60FAS) on the intensity of long‑lasting (persisting for one hour) rotational movements in non‑anesthetized rats was investigated. For this purpose, an experimental hemiparkinsonic animal model was used in the study. Rotational movements in hemiparkinsonic animals were initiated by the intraperitoneal administration of the dopamine receptor agonist apomorphine. It was shown that a preliminary injection of C60FAS (a substance with powerful antioxidant properties) in hemiparkinsonic rats induced distinct changes in animal motor behavior. It was revealed that fullerene‑pretreated animals, in comparison with non‑pretreated or vehicle‑pretreated rats, rotated for 1 h at an approximately identical speed until the end of the experiment, whereas the rotation speed of control rats gradually decreased to 20–30% of the initial value. One can assume that the observed changes in the movement dynamics of the hemiparkinsonic rats after C60FAS pretreatment presumablycan be induced by the influence of C60FAS on the dopaminergic system, although the isolated potentiation of the action of apomorphine C60FAS cannot be excluded. Nevertheless, earlier data on the action of C60FAS on muscle dynamics has suggested that C60FAS can activate a protective action of the antioxidant system in response to long‑lasting muscular activity and that the antioxidant system in turn may directly decrease fatigue‑related changes during long‑lasting muscular activity


C60 Fullerene Penetration into Leukemic Cells and it’s Photo induced Cytotoxic Effects.

Abstract: Fullerene C60as a representative of carbon nano compounds is suggested to be promising agent for application in photodynamic therapy due to its unique physicochemical properties. The goal of this study was to estimate the accumulation of fullerene C60in leukemic cells and to investigate its phototoxic effect on parental and resistant to cisplatin leukemic cells. Stable homogeneous water colloid solution of pristine C60with average 50-nm diameter of nanoparticles was used in experiments. Fluorescent labeled C60was synthesized by covalent conjugation of C60with rhodamine B isothiocyanate. The results of confocal microscopy showed that leukemic Jurkat cells could effectively uptake fullerene C60from the medium. Light-emitting diode lamp (100 mW cm−2,λ= 420–700 nm)was used for excitation of accumulated C60. A time-dependent decrease of viability was detected when leukemic Jurkat cells were exposed to combined treatment with C60and visible light. The cytotoxic effect of photoexcitedC60was comparable with that induced by H2O2, as both agents caused 50% decrease of cell viability at 24 h at concentrations about 50μM. Using immunoblot analysis, protein phosphotyrosine levels in cells were estimated. Combined action of C60and visible light was followed by decrease of cellular proteins phosphorylation on tyrosineresidues though less intensive as compared with that induced by H2O2or protein tyrosine kinase inhibitorstaurosporine. All tested agents reduced phosphorylation of 55, 70, and 90 kDa proteins while total suppression of 26 kDa protein phosphorylation was specific only for photoexcited C60


C60 Fullerene as promising therapeutic agent for correcting and preventing skeletal muscle fatigue.

Abstract: Bioactive soluble carbon nanostructures, such as the C60fullerene can bond with up to six electrons, thus serving by a powerful scavenger of reactive oxygen species similarly to many natural antioxidants, widely used to decrease the muscle fatigue effects. The aim of the study is to define action of the pristine C60fullerene aqueouscolloid solution (C60FAS), on the post-fatigue recovering of m. triceps surae in anaesthetized rats. Results: During fatigue development, we observed decrease in the muscle effort level before C60FAS administration. After the application of C60FAS, a slower effort decrease, followed by the prolonged retention of a certain level, was recorded. An analysis of the metabolic process changes accompanying muscle fatigue showed an increase in the oxidative stress markersH2O2(hydrogen peroxide) and TBARS(thiobarbituric acid reactive substances) in relation to the intact muscles. After C60FAS administration, the TBARS content andH2O2level were decreased. The end ogenous antioxidant system demonstrated a similar effect because the GSH(reduced glutathione) in the muscles and theCAT(catalase) enzyme activity were increased during fatigue


Water-Soluble, Alanine-Modified Fullerene C60 Promotes the Proliferation and Neuronal Differentiation of Neural Stem Cells.

Abstract: As carbon-based nanomaterials, water-soluble C60derivatives have potential applications in various fields of biomedicine. In this study, a water-soluble fullerene C60derivative bearing alanine residues (Ala-C60) was synthesized. The effects of Ala-C60on neural stem cells (NSCs) as seed cells were explored. Ala-C60can promote the proliferation of NSCs, induce NSCs to differentiate into neurons, and inhibit the migration of NSCs. Most importantly, the Ala-C60can significantly in crease the cell viability of NSCs treated with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). The glutathion eperoxidase (GSH-Px) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities and glutathione (GSH) content increased significantly in NSCs treated even by 20μM Ala-C60. These findings strongly indicate that Ala-C60has high potential to be applied as a scaffold with NSCs for regeneration in nerve tissue engineering for diseases related to the nervous system.


Anti-Inflammatory and Antioxidant Effects of Liposoluble C60 at the Cellular, Molecular, and Whole Animal Levels.

Introduction: Liposoluble carbon-60 (C60) has potential applications in many fields, including cosmetics, medical devices, and medicine, but its specific mechanism of action remains unclear. This study explored whether liposoluble C60 could be delivered to human organs, tissues, and cells through blood, extracellular fluid, and cell culture fluid and whether it exerts anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects at the molecular, cellular, and whole-animal levels.


C60 Fullerene Against SARS-CoV-2 Coronavirus: An Insilico Insight.

Based on WHO reports the new SARS‑CoV‑2 coronavirus is currently widespread all over the world. So far>162 million cases have been confirmed, including>3 million deaths. Because of the pandemic still spreading across the globe the accomplishment of computational methods to find new potential mechanisms of virus inhibitions is necessary. According to the fact thatC60fullerene (a sphere‑shaped molecule consisting of carbon) has shown inhibitory activity against various protein targets, here the analysis of the potential binding mechanism between SARS‑CoV‑2 proteins 3CLpro and RdRp withC60fullerene was done; it has resulted in one and two possible binding mechanisms, respectively. In the case of 3CLpro,C60fullerene interacts in the catalytic binding pocket. And for RdRp in the first modelC60fullerene blocks RNA synthesis pore and in the second one it prevents binding with Nsp8 co‑factor(without this complex formation, RdRp can’t perform its initial functions). Then the molecular dynamics simulation confirmed the stability of created complexes. The obtained results might be a basis for other computational studies of 3CLPro and RdRp potential inhibition ways as well as the potential usage ofC60fullerene in the fight against COVID‑19 disease.


Water-Soluble Pristine C60 Fullerene Inhibits Liver Alterations Associated with Hepatocellular Carcinoma in Rats.

Abstract: Excessive production of reactive oxygen species is the main cause of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) initiation and progression. Water-soluble pristine C60fullerene is a powerful and non-toxic antioxidant, therefore, its effect under rat HCC model and its possible mechanisms were aimed to be discovered. Studies on HepG2 cells (human HCC) demonstrated C60fullerene ability to inhibit cell growth (IC50=108.2μmol), to induce apoptosis, to downregulate glucose-6-phosphatedehydrogenase, to upregulate vimentin and p53 expression and to alter HepG2 redox state. If applied to animals experienced HCC in dose of 0.25 mg/kg per day starting at liver cirrhosis stage, C60fullereneimproved post-treatment survival similar to reference 5-fluorouracil (31 and 30 compared to 17 weeks)and inhibited metastasis unlike the latter


C60 Fullerenes Suppress Reactive Oxygen Species Toxicity Damage in Boar Sperm.

Carboxylated C60 may be considered a novel antioxidant agent to be used as a semen extender supplement for assisted reproductive technology


C60 Fullerene Reduces 3-Nitropropionic Acid Induced Oxidative Stress Disorders and Mitochondrial Dysfunction in Rats.

Abstract:C60fullerene as a potent free radical scavenger and antioxidant could be a beneficial means for neurodegenerative disease prevention or cure. The aim of the study was to define the effects of C60administration on mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress disorders in a 3-nitropropionic acid(3-NPA)-induced rat model of Huntington’s disease. Animals received 3-NPA (30 mg/kg i.p.) once a day for 3 consecutive days. C60was applied at a dose of 0.5 mg/kg of body weight, i.p. daily over5 days before (C60pre-treatment) and after 3-NPA exposure (C60post-treatment). Oxidative stress bio markers, the activity of respiratory chain enzymes, the level of antioxidant defense, and pro- and antiapoptotic markers were analyzed in the brain and skeletal muscle mitochondria.


PREVENTION OF MYCOTOXICOSIS IN MINKS WITH THE USE OF SHUNGITE AND HITINGLUCANS.

The aim of the research was to study the prevention of the combined effects of mycotoxins T-2 and aflatoxin B1 on the body of minks. Experimental studies were carried out on the minks of the “Pastel” breed. 4 groups of minks with 10 animals in each were formed. The first group served as biological control. The second one received T-2 toxin at a dose of 200 mcg/kg and aflatoxin B1 at a dose of 50 mcg/kg of feed. The third group received T-2 toxin at a dose of 200 mcg/kg, aflatoxin B1 at a dose of 50 mcg/kg of feed and shungite at a dose of 0.5% of the dry matter of the diet. The fourth group received T-2 toxin at a dose of 200 mcg/kg, aflatoxin B1 at a dose of 50 mcg/ kg of feed and shungite at a dose of 0.45% and hitinglucans 0.05% of the dry matter of the diet. The experiment lasted for 30 days, hematological and biochemical blood tests were performed every 10 days. Thus, the inclusion of shungite from the Zazhoginsky deposit and hitinglucans in the diet of animals has a preventive effect in T-2 and aflatoxicosis of minks with normalization of hematological and biochemical parameters.


Green Extraction of Graphene from Natural Mineral Shungite.

Abstract: Conventional fabrication methods to produce graphene are cumbersome, expensive, and not ecologically friendly. This is due to the fact that the processing of a large volume of raw materials requires large amounts of acids and alkalis which, in turn, require special disposal. Therefore, it is necessary to develop new technologies or to refine existing ones for the production of graphene—and to create new, ecologically-safe and effective methods. Here, we utilized physical sonicationto extract graphene films from natural mineral shungite rock. From our study of the structure of shungite by Raman spectrometry and X-ray phase analysis, we found that shungite is characterized by graphite-like mineral structures. Transmission electron microscopy images obtained from the processed material revealed graphene films—with surfaces as small as 200 nanometers long and several layers wide. Our green method of fabricating graphene can be widely used in a variety of fields, from electro-optics to ecology, to list a few.


Silent Death by Sound: C60 Fullerene Soundynamic Treatment of Cancer Cells

Abstract: The acoustic pressure waves of ultrasound (US) not only penetrate biological tissues deeper than light, but they also generate light emission, termed sonoluminescence. This promoted the idea of its use as an alternative energy source for photosensitizer excitation. Pristine C60fullerene (C60),an excellent photosensitizer, was explored in the frame of cancer sonodynamic therapy (SDT). For that purpose, we analyzed C60effects on human cervix carcinoma HeLa cells in combination with a low-intensity US treatment. The time-dependent accumulation of C60in HeLa cells reached its maximum at 24 h (800±66 ng/106cells). Half of extranuclear C60is localized within mitochondria. The efficiency of the C60nanostructure’s sonoexcitation with 1 MHz US was tested with cell-based assays. A significant proapoptotic sonotoxic effect of C60was found for HeLa cells. C600s ability to induce apoptosis of carcinoma cells after sonoexcitation with US provides a promising novel approach for cancer treatment.


Modifying additive for concrete based on Shungite processing waste.

Abstract: The paper is devoted to the study of waste processing of shungite rocks, which are formed in the process of mining and technological operations. However, the market of national modifying additives based on local raw materials is not developed at the appropriate level in the presence of a rich resource base of the mining industry. In this regard, it is of great interest to obtain additives based on shungite rock processing waste, which allow expanding the range of mineral additives and providing qualitatively new properties for concrete and reinforced concrete products and structures.


Chemical composition of extracts from shungite and “Shungite water”.

Abstract: A chemical analysis of aqueous extracts from shungite-III from the Zazhogino deposit (Republic of Karelia) and of natural water contacting with shungite rocks was made. The chemical composition and bactericide properties of shungite water were studied.


The applicability of shungite as an electrically conductive additive in cement composites.

This paper presents the results of the investigation on the applicability of shungite as an electrically conductive additive in cement composites. In this study, shungite-3 containing: 34.3 wt% of carbon, 56.3 wt% of SiO2, 3.8 wt% of Al2O3 and porosity of 11 wt% was used. Cement mortars with a different shungite content were prepared and their electrical, piezoresistive, thermoelectric and mechanical properties were characterized.


Carbonaceous Fullerene Containing Mineral Shungite. Research of Influence of Shungite on Mountain Water.

The study compared the composition and structural properties of amorphous, uncrystallized, fullerene analogous carbon containing natural mineral shungite from Zazhoginskoe deposit in Karelia (Russian Federation) and microporous crystalline aluminosilicate mineral zeolite (Most, Bulgaria). There are submitted data about the nanostructure, obtained with using of transmission electron microscopy (TEM-method), IR-spectroscopy (NES and DNES-method), as well as composition and physical chemical properties of these minerals.


A Study of the Possibility of Using Shungite in Latex Rubber Formulations for the Manufacture of Gloves with High Resistance to Aggressive Media.

A study was made of the possibility of producing composites based on natural ‘Kvaliteks’ latex that are filled (20–30 parts) with shungite (‘Karelit’). The possibility of producing such composites had been shown earlier for the natural latex ‘Revultex’ containing a vulcanising group.


Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Shungite against Ultraviolet B Irradiation-Induced Skin Damage in Hairless Mice.

As fullerene-based compound applications have been rapidly increasing in the health industry, the need of biomedical research is urgently in demand. While shungite is regarded as a natural source of fullerene, it remains poorly documented. Here, we explored the in vivo effects of shungite against ultraviolet B- (UVB-) induced skin damage by investigating the physiological skin parameters, immune-redox profiling, and oxidative stress molecular signaling.


Carbonaceous Fullerene Containing Mineral Shungite and Aluminosilicate Mineral Zeolite. Mathematical Model and Practical Application of Water Solution of Shungite and Zeolite.

They studied the mathematical model of interaction with water of two natural minerals – amorphous, uncrystallized, fullerene analogous carbon containing natural mineral shungite from Zazhoginskoe deposit in Karelia (Russian Federation) and microporous crystalline aluminosilicate mineral zeolite (Most, Bulgaria). In this report are submitted data about the interaction of these minerals with water.


A giant Palaeoproterozoic deposit of Shungite in NW Russia: genesis and practical applications.

Occurrences of 2.0 Ga, mature organic material from the Lake Onega area, NW Russia, constitute one of the most remarkable accumulations of organic carbon from the Palaeoproterozoic. The deposit occurs in a 1000-m sedimentary-volcanic succession developed over an area of 9000 km2 with an estimated total carbon reserve exceeding 25×1010 tonnes.


Crop Enhancement of Cucumber Plants under Heat Stress by Shungite Carbon.

Heat stress negatively impacts plant growth and yield. The effects of carbon materials on plants in response to abiotic stress and antioxidant activity are poorly understood. In this study, we propose a new method for improving heat tolerance in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) using a natural carbon material, shungite, which can be easily mixed into any soil.


Process for preparation of water having therapeutic benefits using Shungite.

The present invention generally relates to purifying and processing water using mineraloid material. Specifically, the present invention relates to a process for purification or treatment of water shungite stone and the purified water possess therapeutic effects. The purified shungite treated water of the present invention is useful in the treatment, control or prevention of cancer, inflammatory diseases, viral infection, bacterial infection cardiovascular diseases or gastrointestinal diseases.


Microbiological, Physico-Chemical and Organoleptic Parameters of Apple Juice, Processed by Shungite.

This paper is dedicated to results of studying microbiological, physico-chemical and organoleptical parameters of apple juice processed by shungite. Shungite is a natural mineral which has special structural composition, characterized by the existence of fullerenes and nanotubes. This paper explains the methods applied by the authors to prepare shungite for experimental research, to process apple juice by adsorbent, to determine the quantity of microorganisms in juice after it interacted with shungite, weight percentage of dissolvable dry solids, active acidity and quality parameters.


Water-alcohol adsorbing cleaning out of higher alcohols by Shungite.

Water-alcohol adsorbing cleaning out of higher alcohols by Shungite / L. Melnik, O. Turchun, N. Tkachuk, A. Kuts, Z. Melnyk // Ukrainian Journal of Food Science.


Adsorption of ammonia nitrogen from water and of nitrate ions from vegetable juices by Shungite.

Found that shungite has effective adsorption properties relative to nitrate ions from beet juice. Shungit also absorbs ammonium ions in drinking water. An illustration of the mechanism of adsorption processes in the “solid – liquid”.


The structure and composition of natural carbonaceous fullerene containing mineral Shungite.

The composition and structural properties of amorphous, un-crystallized, fullerene analogous (fullerene content 0.01–0.0001% (w/w)) carbon containing natural mineral – shungite, from Zazhoginskoe deposit in Karelia (Russian Federation) are studied. There are submitted data about the nanostructure, obtained with the using of scanning electron microscopy, composition and physical chemical properties of this mineral.


Review on the Antimicrobial Properties of Carbon Nanostructures.

Swift developments in nanotechnology have prominently encouraged innovative discoveries across many fields. Carbon-based nanomaterials have emerged as promising platforms for a broad range of applications due to their unique mechanical, electronic, and biological properties. Carbon nanostructures (CNSs) such as fullerene, carbon nanotubes (CNTs), graphene and diamond-like carbon (DLC) have been demonstrated to have potent broad-spectrum antibacterial activities toward pathogens.


Fullerenes: An introduction and overview of their biological properties.

Ever since their experimental discovery in 1985, fullerenes have attracted considerable attention in different fields of sciences. Investigations of chemical, physical and biological properties of fullerenes have yielded promising information. Their unique carbon cage structure coupled with immense scope for derivatization makes fullerenes a potential therapeutic agent. Henceforth various potential therapeutic applications of fullerenes have been reviewed in the present paper. These include antiHIV- protease activity, photodynamic DNA cleavage, free radical scavenger, antimicrobial action and use of fullerenes as diagnostic agents.


The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1996 was awarded jointly to Robert F. Curl Jr., Sir Harold W. Kroto and Richard E. Smalley “for their discovery of fullerenes.”

New forms of the element carbon – called fullerenes – in which the atoms are arranged in closed shells was discovered in 1985 by Robert F. Curl, Harold W. Kroto and Richard E. Smalley. The number of carbon atoms in the shell can vary, and for this reason numerous new carbon structures have become known. Formerly, six crystalline forms of the element carbon were known, namely two kinds of graphite, two kinds of diamond, chaoit and carbon(VI). The latter two were discovered in 1968 and 1972.


Using Shungite in Water Defluoridation by Galvanocoagulation.

Fluorine is a natural component of many sources of drinking water. An excess of fluorine in drinking water leads to metabolic disturbances in bone tissues. In this context, the International Drinking Water Quality Standards recommend adhering to a fluoride content of drinking water of no more than 1.5 mg/dm3. If this value is exceeded, water requires defluoridation. In this work, defluoridation by galvanocoagulation in a drum-type galvanocoagulator was studied.


Glyphosate adsorption on C 60 fullerene in aqueous medium for water reservoir depollution.

The indiscriminate use of pesticides has caused several damages to the environment, in particular the pollution of water reservoirs, so that this has motivated the development of techniques to minimize its consequences. One of the main surface water pollutants is glyphosate, which is a widely used herbicide for weed control. Therefore, in this work, computational simulations were used with density functional theory and molecular dynamics to theoretically verify if C60 fullerene is capable of adsorbing glyphosate in aqueous media. As a result, we showed through the adsorption energies, molecular dynamics methods, and infrared absorption that C60 can adsorb glyphosate molecules in at least three distinct configurations, either in vacuum or in water, which theoretically indicates it as a good candidate for removal of this herbicide from water by nanotechnology techniques.


A Study of the Antioxidant, Cytotoxic Activity and Adsorption Properties of Karelian Shungite by Physicochemical Methods

Abstract: This study reveals that fossil shungite samples exhibit antioxidant activity, can reduce oxidized components, and bind to free radicals. A sample of Sh20 (size fraction—20 µm) (1.30 mg equivalents of ascorbic acid/g of shungite; 3.46 mg equivalents of trolox/g of shungite; 0.99 mg equivalents of quercetin/g of shungite) had the maximal activity according to the amperometric method. The obtained data indicate that shungite has antioxidant properties.


Electromagnetic shielding effectiveness of lightweight and flexible ultrathin shungite plates.

Abstract: Carbon-containing shielding materials, especially with absorbing properties, received a lot of attention from the scientific community as having flexibility, lightness and corrosion resistance. Reducing the thickness of such materials (usually a few millimeters) is also an urgent task. In this paper, we offered results of studying the reflective and absorbing properties of shielding materials from natural graphene-containing shungite. Flexible shungite plates with a thickness of 10–20 μm showed good reflection and absorption similar shielding performance to a thicker 2–3 mm synthetic polymer/carbon based composites. Such characteristics are associated with the fact that shungites are unique natural composites with a conductive carbon matrix and micro-sized dielectric mineral inclusions. Shungite could be considered as a raw to manufacture shielding materials, and as a model for more complete understanding of interaction of radiation with graphene-containing conducting solids in order to improve the shielding performances.


Remediation of soil contaminated by toxic rocket fuel components using modified carbon–mineral adsorbing material produced from shungite rock modified with Mn4+ and Fe3+.

Abstract: The study develops a novel catalytic adsorption material for remediation of soils contaminated by toxic rocket fuel components (RFC). Modified carbon–mineral material (MCMM) sorbent is produced using shungite rock and modified using iron (III) chloride and manganese (IV) oxide. MCMM production process is developed, and MCMM remediation efficiency is tested using soil samples from rocket separating parts impact sites with RFCs contamination. The structure of shungite and the physicochemical parameters of MCMM, the soils contamination at the impact areas of the rocket separating parts, and the ways rocket fuel components transformation in the soil were investigated. The obtained MCMM showed the efficiency of sorption and catalytic decomposition of the rocket fuel transformation products and determined the optimal conditions for remediation. The index of soil detoxification at a concentration of the analyzed decay products is from 0.1 mg/kg to 3.21 mg/kg is from 81.1 to 98.8%.


Recharging the battery: Shungite nullifies physiological stress produced by electric vehicles.

Introduction: Electric vehicles generate strong electromagnetic fields (EMF) which may have adverse health effects. No research has as yet addressed whether and how this stress can be countered. Objective: To investigate (a) the impact of EMF on heart rate variability and saliva cortisol and (b) whether a protective device made of shungite may counter stress responses. Materials and Methods: In a pilot study, recordings were taken during a 30-minute test drive at a constant speed and under high EMF burden (electric, magnetic, high frequency) with or without four hidden shungite plaques inside the vehicle. In the main study, this was replicated and additional study arms tested the duration of EMF exposure (15 min, 45 min) as well as the number of hidden plates (two). Results: There was a reversal of effects in both studies with regard to the induced level of stress. While HRV decreased and cortisol increased in the control condition (no protection), HRV increased and cortisol decreased in the treatment conditions (shungite) independent of the duration of the EMF exposure and the number of shungite plaques. Conclusion: EMF produced by electric vehicles cause autonomic stress responses on a neurocardiac and neuroendocrine level. These responses can be nullified by a special form of shungite (EssenceX).


Shungite and it’s Industrial Potential

Abstract: Shungite rocks are widespread in Zaonezhye, Republic of Karelia, where they constitute dozens of carbonaceous rock deposits of the Paleoproterozoic Onega structure with predicted carbon resources of more 4 billion tons. The lower age boundary is of 2.1 Ga. Shungite rocks belong to carbonaceous rock class. These rocks metamorphosed in greenshcist facies of muscovite-chlorite-biotite subfacies are unique natural, noncrystalline, non-graphitized, fullerene-like carbon. They have various structural-mineralogical levels: (a) supramolecular, (b) molecular, (c) electron-energetic, (d) structural-physical and (e) geologic-genetic (parametric). Shungite rocks contain shungite carbon (shungite matter) and a variety minerals, microminerals and nanominerals. The applications of shungite rocks are determined with regard for their natural types. Authors had shown their integrated application in ore-thermal processes.


Extending the Storage Life of Foods Using Shungite

Abstract: Shungite has gained popularity in recent years as a material for water purification and food preservation. The purpose of the study is to develop a fast method of assessing the biological activity of shungite batches and to determine the time of contact between shungite and water to increase or reduce the bioactivity of shungite water in the food industry, specifically in the production of baked goods with extended shelf life.


Carbonized Sorbents of Shungite and Rice Husk for Purification of Petroleum Contaminated Soils.

Abstract: Contamination of soil and water with petroleum during its extraction, collection, transportation, storage and preparation occurs frequently, and purification of oil spills is one of the pressing environmental problems of oil producing organizations. There are a large number of methods for utilization oil spills. The sorption method in combination with bioremediation is capable of effectively purification of petroleum contaminated soils. The paper shows the possibility of using a carbonized mixture of shungite from the Koksu deposit (Kazakhstan) with rice husk as a sorbent and carrier of microorganism strains. The physicochemical properties and elemental composition, as well as the microstructure of carbonized samples were established. The maximum sorption capacity of carbonized sorbents when purifying the soil samples from oil from the Karazhanbas field was 1.86 g/g after 60 days. The carbonized samples with microorganism strains immobilized on them showed a degree of oil destruction reaching 90%.


Research on Potential Application of a New Fertilizer based on Natural Sorbents for Toxic Soils (Shungite Soil)

Abstract: The article considers the study on potential application of fertilizer containing natural sorbents from Kazakhstan deposits in order to develop a new organomineral fertilizer from household waste water and sorption materials. There was the study on the possibility for the developed organomineral fertilizers to influence heavy metals input into plant products, including those ones on polluted soil. There was the research on heavy metals input into soil with meltwater on urban territory plots close to metallurgic enterprises in order to apply the proposed new fertilizer. The following factors were defined: the required area of the plots, their service life period, produced fertilizers application load, economically reasonable distance for transporting fertilizers. The work demonstrates test results related to studying influence of new fertilizer types on Amoria creeping clover (Trifolium repens) feeding crop capacity, accumulation of heavy metals in soil and plants. Content of heavy metals was defined in plant products grown with new fertilizers application and it was proved that the proposed fertilizers were safe. Heavy metals content in plants decreases on 2.3 – 10.2 % of heavy metals content in soil if there is fertilizer based on shungite. Shungite-based fertilizer provides better results in copper and zinc than bentonite-clay based fertilizer (from 0.6 to 6 % of heavy metals content in soil). But bentonite-clay based fertilizer provides better results in cadmium and lead (0.4 – 1.9 %).


Sorption Extraction of Heavy Metal Ions from Wastewater by Natural and Synthetic Sorbents (Shungite)

Abstract: Large metallurgical enterprises are concentrated in the East Kazakhstan region. The main polluter is UstKamenogorsk metallurgical complex “Kazzinc”. The level of contamination of underground and surface waters within the boundaries of the pollution area exceeds that of zinc and copper. The increasing scale of production and requirements for water quality dictate the search for more effective ways to purify natural and wastewater, and to recycle treated wastewater for reuse. Traditional methods of wastewater treatment, for example, as a reagent method, do not provide deep purification of wastewater from metal ions (Menshova et al., 2016). Among the methods used for deep treatment of non-ferrous metallurgy wastewater from heavy metal ions, the sorption method is the most effective one. The advantages of sorption method are the following: high sorption capacity; selectivity factor; comparatively low cost, availability, as it is local material; process control and possibility to remove contaminants of different nature up to any residual concentration independent of their chemical resistance (Corda et al., 2019). Purification of wastewater from non-ferrous metallurgical enterprises by using new sorbent materials is a relevant problem nowadays.
For wastewater treatment, various artificial materials (Srisuwan et al., 2018) such as activated carbon (Cali etal., 2019), polymeric membranes (Gnanaselvan et al., 2019) and natural materials are used as sorbents(Guixia et al., 2014): zeolites (Aubakirova et al., 2018), shungites (Fischer et al., 2018), bentonite clays(Daumova et al., 2018) and others. Synthesis of sorbents with a high sorption capacity that can effectively absorb various metal ions from wastewater is of interest (Mamyachenkov et al., 2017).


Fukushima Water May Benefit From New Purification Technique

Article/Abstract: Researchers at Rice University and Kazan Federal University in Russia say they have discovered a new way to purify water contaminated by radioactive metals.

They claim that their discovery could help restore water contaminated by the Fukushima nuclear plant disaster in Japan. The findings were published by the journal Carbon.

According to the study, the technique centers on a carbon-based material created by the researchers by applying oxidative treatment to natural carbon sources. The researchers say the method is relatively inexpensive and can be used in traditional filtration columns. It is effective at extracting materials that “are among the most difficult to remove from the waters at the Fukushima nuclear plant,” including cesium and strontium, the study said.


Oxidatively modified carbon as efficient material for removing radionuclides from water

Abstract: There is a constant need to develop advantageous materials for removing radioactive waste from aqueous systems. Here we propose a new carbon-based material prepared by oxidative treatment of various natural carbon sources. The as-prepared oxidatively modified carbon (OMC) has an oxygen-rich surface, and retains its particulate granular texture. It has relatively low cost and can be used in traditional filtration columns. The sorption ability of OMC toward several metal cations is demonstrated. It is especially efficient toward Cs+ cations, the species that are among the most difficult to remove from the waters at the Fukushima nuclear plant.


Enhancement of Drought Tolerance in Cucumber Plants by Natural Carbon Materials

Abstract: Stress induced by climate change is a widespread and global phenomenon. Unexpected drought stress has a substantial effect on the growth and productivity of valuable crops. The effects of carbon materials on living organisms in response to abiotic stresses remain poorly understood. In this study, we proposed a new method for enhancing drought tolerance in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) using carbon nanotubes and natural carbon materials called shungite, which can be easily mixed into any soil. We analyzed the phenotype and physiological changes in cucumber plants grown under conditions of drought stress. Shungite-treated cucumber plants were healthier, with dark green leaves, than control plants when watering was withheld for 21 days. Furthermore, compared with the control cucumber group, in the shungite-treated plants, the monodehydroascorbate content of the leaf, which is a representative marker of oxidative damage, was 66% lower. In addition, major scavenger units of reactive oxygen species and related drought stress marker genes were significantly upregulated. These results indicate that successive pretreatment of soil with low-cost natural carbon material improved the tolerance of cucumber plants to drought stress.


Role of Dietary Inclusion of Phytobiotics and Mineral Adsorbent Combination on Dairy Cows′ Milk Production, Nutrient Digestibility, Nitrogen Utilization, and Biochemical Parameters

Abstract: Our research purpose was to study the effect of the inclusion of a combination of phytobiotics in the form of dry Fucus vesiculosus grits (FG) and a mineral adsorbent from the heat-treated mineral shungite (TMS) on milk productivity, nutrient digestibility, and biochemical parameters of the Suksun dairy cows. A total of 80 dry-hardy cows of the Suksun breed were divided into four groups (20 heads each), balanced primarily by breed, age, body weight, body condition score, and indicators of milk yield for the previous lactation. The selected cows were with an average live body weight of 512.0 ± 1.28 kg, BCS 3.0–3.5, and parities of 6250 kg milk. The control group (CON) were fed the basic ration only; the second (TMS), third (FG), and fourth (TMS + FG) groups were fed the basic ration provided by 50 g of the mineral adsorbent from heat-treated shungite, 100 g of Fucus grits (Fucus vesiculosus), 50 g of the mineral adsorbent from heat-treated shungite, and 100 g of dry grits from Fucus vesiculosus, respectively.


Methods for sorption purification of underground water to remove uranium

Abstract: Possibility was examined of using sorption purification of underground water containing 246 μg dm–3 of uranium to remove this component with zeolite and shungite of natural origin, technogenic phosphogypsum, and products of their modification under static and dynamic sorption conditions. Copper(II), nickel, and zinc hydroxides served as modifying agents. It was shown that the modified sorbents enable a substantially higher extraction of uranium into the sorbent under static and dynamic sorption conditions. The water purification reached the level satisfying the requirements of hygienic regulation GN 2.1.5.1315–03 (maximum permissible concentration of chemical substances in water of household and cultural water bodies), imposed on technical-grade water used for industrial purposes.


A SHUNGITE BASED HYDROGEL TO REMOVE RARE EARTH ELEMENTS FROM AN AQUEOUS MEDIA AND IT’S PREPARATION METHOD (Patent)

Abstract of Patent: Invention is about a sustainable absorber hydrogel comprised of natural shungite dust with 35-80 or 20-35 mass percentages of carbon content for sorption of critical rare earth elements (REEs) such as Dy3+, Er3+, Nd3+, Y3+ and La3+ ions from aqueous solution or industrial wastewater. The produced shungite-based hydrogel has lower energy consumption, high selectivity towards REEs and easy of scalability.


PLANT REGENERATION MEDIUM COMPOSITION AND PLANT REGENERATION METHOD (Shungite) (Patent)

Abstract of Patent: The present invention relates to a plant regeneration medium composition and a plant regeneration method using same and, more specifically, to: a plant regeneration medium composition using a medium composition containing shungite as an active ingredient so as to increase the rates of shoot organogenesis and root organogenesis, thereby enabling the time required during processes of organogenesis using a plant explant to be shortened and the efficiency of ontogeny to be improved; and a plant regeneration method using same.


COMPOUND LIQUID FERTILIZER (Shungite) (Russian Patent)

Abstract of Patent: The invention relates to agriculture. A compound liquid fertilizer contains colloidal silver and a combination of macro- and micronutrients in a salt form, as well as in the form of metal-ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid chelates, wherein the fertilizer additionally contains sodium tallow amphopolycarboxyglycinate, polyvinylpyrrolidone, and water pre-structured with shungite. All of the ingredients are used in specific proportions. The invention makes it possible to increase acaricidal activity with respect to the two-spotted spider mite, insecticidal activity with respect to the potato aphid and anti-viral activity with respect to the tomato yellow leaf curl virus, as well as to increase the stability of the fertilizer as a colloidal system.


METHOD FOR TREATING JOINT DISEASES (Shungite) (Russian Patent)

Abstract of Patent: SUBSTANCE: method involves applying aqueous fango extraction electrophoresis. Fine crushed schungite rock suspension in water is applied as fango in 3:1 mineral-to- water proportion. EFFECT: wider area of therapeutic action; uniform supply of active substances. (patent is written in Russian)


SUBSTANTIATION OF THE POSSIBILITY OF USING SHUNGITE AS AN EFFECTIVE RADIO-ABSORBING MATERIAL

Abstract: Statement of the problem. The task of studying shungite to create effective radio-absorbing materials in construction production is considered. The need for this is dictated by a high density of electromagnetic fields in places of finding or resolving a person and a negative influence on his health. Results. The influence of the composition of building mixtures based on shungite of the Zazhogihinsky membrane is investigated by the absorption of microwave energy in a wide frequency range. The use of the measuring unit based on a scalar chain analyzer and measuring paths in the form of a microwave resonator, made it possible to measure the absorption values of the electromagnetic energy in a wide range of frequencies. The increase in the absorption of shungite is shown in increasing its concentration in the samples under study with values up to 24 dB/cm. Conclusions. The effectiveness of the use of shungite is is proved as a filler of building mixtures or with binders (plaster, phosphogypsum) to form protective coatings of walls or wall materials from the effects of electromagnetic energy per person. The most optimal ratio is 50-60 percent of shungite and the rest of the knit, while the frequency range of the absorption is 3-12 GHz.


ABSORBERS OF ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION BASED ON SHUNGITE SPECIES

Abstract: In recent decades, the industries have experienced rapid development of various technologies directly or indirectly related to the emission of electromagnetic energy into the environment. The number of emitting technical means in production and in everyday life is increasing. At present, there are different ways, methods and materials to reduce the effects of electromagnetic radiation. The properties of absorbers of electromagnetic radiation (EMR), formed on the basis of domestic natural material of shungite species from the deposit of the mining company “Koksu”, Almaty region, are considered. The results of the interaction of EMR with samples of materials of absorbers and the dependence of the transmission coefficients on the angle of incidence of electromagnetic waves (EMW) in the frequency range 5.3-10.6 GHz are obtained. Research in these frequency ranges is crucial and relevant with the development and transition in the future of systems and mobile cellular networks of promising generations to higher radio frequency ranges. The use of powdered shungite for the creation of EMR absorbers in ultra-high-frequency radiation (UHFR) range has not yet been studied enough. Technological values of the selected EMR absorbers in comparison with other geomaterials: strength of stone-like shungite species, high indicators of density (for example, 2.61 g/cm3 – “TS” brand; 2.49 g/cm3 – “TK” brand) and mechanical resistance, high thermal and chemical stability, low cost, good mixing with binders. The test samples provide a decrease of EMR level due to the presence of absorption effects.


Physiological response of onion seedlings to shungite application under two soil water regimes.

Abstract: The application of carbon-rich substrates to agricultural soils is discussed as a strategy to improve soil properties and fertility, which can affect plant physiological traits and enhance agricultural crop yield. The aim of this study was to evaluate if shungite, carbon-rich sedimentary-volcanic rock, may improve plant ecophysiological traits under sufficient water supply as well as soil water deficit. A pot culture experiment was conducted with onion (Allium cepa L.) seedlings, using four shungite concentrations (0, 5, 10 and 20 g kg−1) in an Umbric Podzols and two water regimes: well-watered and drying-wetting cycles. Soil water deficit decreased root nutrient content, depressed seedlings growth, net CO2 assimilation rate (An), stomatal conductance (gs) and the respiration rates in both darkness (Rd) and the light (Rl), but increased water use efficiency (WUE) at leaf level. Shungite application decreased the leaf necrosis under both water regimes and increased total leaf length of DW seedlings. Compared with the well-watered conditions, under drying-wetting cycle shungite stimulated the increase of the An rate and WUE at low measurement temperature. No significant effect of shungite was found for Rd, Rl, Rl/Rd, Rd/Ag (Ag = An + Rl) and Rl/Ag regardless soil water regimes. Shungite application was not so successful to eliminate the negative effects of soil water deficit on growth and physiological processes of A. cepa. The observed positive effects of shungite on the physiological traits of onion seedlings were more likely associated with the increase in the content of nutrients than with the improvement in soil water properties.


APPLICATION OF SHUNGITE FOR CLEANING POULTRY WASTEWATER.

Abstract: The article presents the results of organoleptic and physicochemical analysis of waste water from poultry enterprises after passing through a shungite filter. The efficiency of using a filter based on shungite for purification and disinfection of wastewater is shown. The elimination of an unpleasant odor, a several-fold decrease in indices for turbidity, color, oxidizability, and biochemical oxygen consumption were recorded. The amount of lead decrease by 42.2 was noted; manganese – 34.2; copper – 74,1; zinc – 83,6 % (P<0.001); sulfates – 19,5 % (P<0,05); chlorides – 90,6 %; phosphates – by 44,8 % (P<0.001). The amount of ammonia in waste water with a significant excess of this indicator in the starting material after filtration decreased by 2,5 times (P<0.001).


Combined effect of heavy metals and shungite on the indicator plankton species.

Abstract: The combined effect of salts of heavy metals and shungite on the test organisms of phyto- and zooplankton has been studied. The toxic effect of both cadmium sulfate and potassium dichromate on the culture of Scenedesmus guadricauda was inactivated in the presence of shungite (100 g/L). The efficiency of photosynthesis, the number of cells, the proportion of living cells, and the lifetime of the microalgae cell population increased after adding shungite to the medium (without toxicants). In addition, in acute experiments that lasted up to 96 h, the toxicity of potassium dichromate, copper sulfate, and cadmium sulfate on crustaceans (Daphnia magna and Ceriodaphnia affinis) was studied in the presence of shungite (0.01 g/L) and without it. This study of the effect of shungite’s presence on crustaceans showed that it protected both Daphnia magna and Ceriodaphnia affinis from the action of toxicants at the minimum concentration (0.01 g/L) of the five tested. Daphnia magna died at higher concentrations of shungite. It was shown that the acute toxicity of heavy metals for the two crustacean species decreased in the series Cu–Cd–Cr. The analysis of the obtained data showed that the shungite concentrations necessary for the inactivation of heavy metals were thousands of times higher for algae than for crustaceans. Therefore, when using the shungite as a protector against the toxic effects of various substances, a preliminary laboratory analysis of the survival of different species of hydrobionts in a specific aquatic environment is necessary.


Natural Material Shungite as Solid-Phase Extraction Sorbent for the Extraction of Red Synthetic Dye Ponceau 4R from Tap Water, Wine, and Juice.

Abstract: A natural nanomaterial shungite (NMSh) was used as solid-phase extraction (SPE) absorbent and showed excellent absorption capacity for red synthetic dye. NMSh is a mixture of various carbon allotropes, which is used as an inexpensive and effective sorbent in various scientific and food research around the world. NMSh is not just amorphous carbon, but the mixture of various carbon allotropes; shungite has been categorized as a promising material for the development of nanotechnology, which is of great interest for the development of science and technology. This fact served as the basis for selecting shungite as a material to create sorbents that will be used in the preparation of samples for analysis. For the determination of the red synthetic dye Ponceau 4R in samples of wine and juice, an SPE method with NMSh packed cartridge combined with HPLC–UV detection was developed to determine Ponceau 4R in tap water, wine, and juice samples. Particle size and mass of NMSh sorbent were studied, and a comparison between activated and non-activated NMSh was made for use as a sorbent. Under optimized conditions, the extraction of analyte was 99.3% for wine and 94.3% for juice with relative standard deviations (RSD) during the day equal to 0.18% for juice and 0.15% for wine. The results showed that this method is very sensitive and effective for the determination of food dyes in very complex matrices and in a low concentration. Based on the study was developed the method to determine the dyes in alcoholic and non-alcoholic drinks.


Adsorption properties of shungite in purification of water–alcohol solutions.

Abstract: Shungite adsorption properties to remove higher alcohols and other impurities from water–alcohol solutions is studied by the methods of nitrogen adsorption, thermogravimetric analysis, wetting, temperature-programmed desorption mass spectrometry, and FTIR spectroscopy. Shungite is shown to be able to effectively sorb impurities from water-alcohol solutions to form fairly strong adsorption systems. Heat treatment 180°C in vacuum results in almost complete decomposition of the adsorption systems, thus providing recovery and a slight increase of the specific surface and sorptive volume of shungite. The present findings demonstrate the theoretical possibility of recovery of adsorption centers on the shungite surface, which would extend its usable life as a sorbent.


The Combined Effect of Shungite and Heavy Metals on the Growth of Microalgae Роpulation.

Abstract: The combined effect of 3 mg/L potassium dichromate, 1.5 mg/L cadmium sulfate, and 100 g/L shungite on the growth of chlorococcales green microalgae culture Scenedesmus quadricauda (Turp.) Bréb. is studied. The toxic effect of potassium dichromate and cadmium sulfate on S. quadricauda is estimated by calculating the share of living and dead cells and physiological parameters. The toxic effect of heavy metals does not manifest itself under the combined action of potassium dichromate or cadmium sulfate and shungite on S. quadricauda. The best growth of the algae culture occurred only when only shungite was added to the culture medium. Shungite can be used to neutralize the toxic effect of heavy metals.


SHUNGITE ACTION ON CRUSTACEANS AND ITS INFLUENCE ON POTASSIUM DICHROMATE TOXICITY.

Abstract: It is shown that at the direct contact with shungite (10.00 and 100.00 g/l) as well as in the presence of shungite isolated on the dialysis sac (100.00 g/l), the survival and fertility of Daphnia magna decrease as compared to the control during 10 days of observation. Shungite effect is inter alia linked to a mechanical failure of Daphnia magna filtration apparatus. Concentrations of 0.01 and 0.10 g/l did not affect crustacean survival and fertility. Shungite in the centration of 0.01 g/l lowered toxic effect of potassium in concentrations of 0.005-0.02 g/l on both Ceriodaphnia and Daphnia magna.